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31. Luo R, Gunnarsdóttir A B, Zhao E W “Direct in situ NMR observation of lithium plating, corrosion, nitridation and protonolysis for ammonia synthesis” ChemRxiv, DOI 10.26434/chemrxiv-2024-cpf4.

30. Lyu D, Märker K, Zhou Y, Zhao E W, Gunnarsdóttir A B, Niblett S P, Forse A C, Grey C P “Understanding sorption of aqueous electrolytes in porous carbon by NMR spectroscopy” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2024, 146, 9897.

29. Luo R, Janssen H J W G, Kentgens A P M, Zhao E W “A parallel line probe for spatially selective electrochemical NMR spectroscopy” J. Magn. Reson. 2024361, 107666 (Front cover; Special Issue: New Voices in Magnetic Resonance).

28. Zhu Z, Luo R, Zhao E W “Operando NMR methods for studying electrocatalysis” Magnetic Resonance Letters, in press (invited).


27. Carrington M E, Sokołowski K, Jónsson E,  Zhao E W, Graf A M, Temprano I, McCune J A, Grey C P, Scherman O A “Associative pyridinium electrolytes for air-tolerant redox flow batteries” Nature 2023, 623, 949.

26. Hey D, Jethwa R, Farag N, Rinkel B, Zhao E W, Grey C P “Identifying and preventing degradation in flavin mononucleotide-based redox flow batteries via NMR and EPR spectroscopy” Nature Communications 2023, 14, 5207.

25. Wu B, Aspers L E G R, Kentgens A P M, Zhao E W “Operando benchtop NMR reveals reaction intermediates and crossover in redox flow batteries” J. Magn. Reson. 2023351, 107448 (invited).

24. Lyu D,# Jin Y,# Magusin P C M M, Sturniolo S, Zhao E W, Yamamoto S, Keene S T, Malliaras G G, Grey C P “Operando NMR electrochemical gating studies of ion dynamics in PEDOT:PSS” Nature Materials 2023, 22, 746-753(#equal contribution)

23. Wang K, Fu J, Chang S, Sun X, Sun T, Zhang S, Pang R, Jiang L, Kuang X, Zhao E W, Li C, Xu S, Tang M "Correlating O-deficiency and luminescence property of Tb3+ doped SrO" Advanced Powder Materials 2023, 2, 100112.

22. Jing Y,# Zhao E W,# Goulet M A,# Bahari M, Fell E, Jin S, Davoodi A, Jónsson E, Wu M, Grey C P, Gordon R, D, Aziz M “In situ electrochemical recomposition of decomposed redox-active species in aqueous organic flow batteries” Nature Chemistry 2022, 14, 1103-1109. (#equal contribution)

21.  Zhao E W, Shellard E, Klusener P A A, Grey C P “In situ bulk magnetization measurement reveals the state of charge of redox flow batteries”. ChemComm 2022, 58, 1342-1345.

20. Wang E, Zhao E W, Grey C P “New magnetic resonance and computational methods to study crossover reactions in Li-air and redox-flow batteries using TEMPO” J. Phys. Chem. C 2021, 125, 27520-27533. 

19. Jethwa B J, Zhao E W, Kerber R N, Jónsson E, Wright D S, Grey C P “Designing for conjugate addition: an amine functionalised quinone anolyte for redox flow batteries” J. Mater. Chem. A 2021, 9, 15188-15198

18. Zhao E W, Jónsson E, Jethwa B J, Hey D, Lyu D, Brookfield A, Klusener P A A, Collison D, Grey C P “Coupled in situ NMR and EPR studies reveal the electron transfer rate and electrolyte decomposition in redox flow batteries” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2021, 143, 1885-1895.

17. Liu T, Vivek J P, Zhao E W, Lei J, Garcia-Araez N, Grey C P “Current challenges and routes forward for nonaqueous lithium-air batteries” Chem. Rev. 2020, 120, 6558-6625.     

16. Zhao E W, Liu T, Jónsson E, Lee J, Temprano I, Jethwa B J, Wang A, Smith H, Carretero-González J, Song Q, Grey C P “In situ NMR metrology reveals reaction mechanisms in redox flow batteries” Nature 2020, 579, 224-228.

15. Tan R, Wang A, Malpass-Evans R, Williams R, Zhao E W, Liu T, Ye C, Zhou X, Darwich B P, Fan Z, Turcani L, Jackson E, Chen L, Li T, Jelfs K E, Cooper A I, Brandon N P, Grey C P, McKeown N B, Song Q “Hydrophilic microporous membranes for selective ion separation and flow-battery energy storage” Nature Materials 2020, 19, 195-202.       


14. Zhao E W, Maligal-Ganesh R, Mentink-Vigier F, Zhao Y, Du Y, Pei Y, Huang W, and Bowers C R “Atomic-scale structure of mesoporous silica-encapsulated Pt and PtSn nanoparticles revealed by dynamic nuclear polarization-enhanced Si-29 MAS NMR spectroscopy” J. Phys. Chem. C 2019, 123, 7299-7307


13. Zhao E W, Maligal-Ganesh R, Du Y, Zhao Y, Collins J, Ma T, Zhou L, Goh T, Huang W, and Bowers C R “Surface-mediated hyperpolarization of liquid water with parahydrogen” Chem 2018, 4, 1387-1403.

12. Qian K, Zhao E W, He S, Wei W D  “The effect of surface electronic structures of Au/TiO2 on sonophotochemical reactions” Chin. Chem. Lett. 2018, 29, 783-786.                                                                            

11. Zhao E W, Maligal-Ganesh R, Xiao C, Goh T S, Qi Z, Pei Y, Hagelin-Weaver H E, Huang W, and Bowers C R “Silica-encapsulated Pt-Sn intermetallic nanoparticles: a robust catalytic platform for parahydrogen-induced polarization of gases and liquids” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 3925-3929.  


10. Zhai Y, DuChene J, Wang Y, Qiu J, Johnston-Peck A C, You B, Guo W, DiCiaccio B, Qian K, Zhao E W, Ooi F, Hu D, Su D, Stach E A, Zhu Z, Wei W D “Polyvinylpyrrolidone-induced anisotropic growth of gold nanoprisms in plasmon-driven synthesis” Nature Materials 2016, 15, 889-895.                                                                                   

9. Zhao E W, Xin Y, Hagelin-Weaver H E, Bowers C R “Semihydrogenation of propyne over cerium oxide nanorods, nanocubes, and nano-octahedra: facet dependent parahydrogen-induced polarization” ChemCatChem 2016, 8, 2197-2201.     


8. Zhao E W, Zheng H, Ludden K, Xin Y, Hagelin-Weaver H E, Bowers C R “Strong metal–support interactions enhance the pairwise selectivity of parahydrogen addition over Ir/TiO2” ACS Catal. 2016, 6, 974-978.    


7. Zhao E W, Zheng H, Zhou R, Hagelin-Weaver H E, Bowers C R “Shaped ceria nanocrystals catalyze efficient and selective para-hydrogen-enhanced polarization” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 14270-14275.                                                                                                                                                                      

6. Zhou R, Zhao E W, Cheng W, Neal L M, Zheng H, Quiñones R E, Hagelin-Weaver H E, Bowers C R “Parahydrogen-induced polarization by pairwise replacement catalysis on Pt and Ir nanoparticles” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 1938-1946

5. Zhou R, Cheng W, Neal L M, Zhao E W, Ludden K, Hagelin-Weaver H E, Bowers C R “Parahydrogen enhanced NMR reveals correlations in selective hydrogenation of triple bonds over supported Pt catalyst” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 26121-26129.  

4. Wang Z, Liu B, Zhao E W, Jin K, Du Y, Neeway J J, Ryan J V, Hu D, Zhang K H L, Hong M, Guernic S, Thevuthasan S, Wang F, Zhu Z “Argon cluster sputtering source for ToF-SIMS depth profiling of insulating materials: high sputter rate and accurate interfacial information” J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spec. 2015, 26, 1283-1290

3. Zheng J, Gu M, Genc A, Xiao J, Xu P, Chen X, Zhu Z, Zhao W, Pullan L, Wang C, Zhang J-G “Mitigating voltage fade in cathode materials by improving the atomic level uniformity of elemental distribution” Nano Lett. 2014, 14, 2628-2635

2. DuChene J S, Niu W, Abendroth J M, Sun Q, Zhao W, Huo F, Wei W D “Halide anions as shape-directing agents for obtaining high-quality anisotropic gold nanostructures” Chem. Mater. 2013, 25, 1392-1399

1. Zhao W, Li J, Kang H K, Zhou B, Wong C C “Direct laser interference writing of silver gratings” Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Lett. 2011, 3, 246-249.


3. Zhao E W, Janssen H, Luo R, Kentgens A “An NMR probe for in situ electrochemical spectroscopy” EU patent application 23206408.9, Oct. 2023.

2. Grey C P, Zhao E W, Shellard E “Device and method for determining state of charge in a flow battery” UK patent application 2102339.5, 19th Feb. 2021.

1. Bowers C R, Zhao E W “Methods and systems for producing, using and administering hyperpolarized fluids” International patent application, PCT/US2018/054550, 5th Aug. 2018.

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